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	@BlogType = 'Research' ,
	@BlogURL = 'diabetes-patients-reduce-plaque-gingivitis-al-mubarak-2002' ,
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WaterpikTM Water Flosser: Significant Reduction in Plaque Biofilm, Gingivitis, and Bleeding for Patients with Diabetes

Comparative Evaluation of Adjunctive Oral Irrigation in Diabetes

Al-Mubarak S, Ciancio S, Aljada A, et al. J Clin Periodontol 2002; 29:295-300. Study conducted at the University of Buffalo, School of Dental Medicine.


To compare the addition of the WaterpikTM water flosser with the Pik Pocket subgingival irrigation tip to routine oral hygiene on the periodontal health of people with diabetes.


Fifty two subjects with periodontal disease and either type 1 or type 2 diabetes participated in this three month randomized clinical trial. All subjects had scaling and root planing at baseline then were assigned to either add a WaterpikTM water flosser with the Pik PocketTM Tip twice daily to their oral hygiene routine or to continue practicing their regular oral hygiene routine. Periodontal health was measured via clinical and metabolic parameters.


Adding the WaterpikTM water flosser was superior to normal oral hygiene in reducing the traditional measures of periodontal disease: plaque biofilm, gingivitis, and bleeding on probing. The WaterpikTM water flosser also reduced the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1B and PGE2, as well as the level of reactive oxygen species, a bacteria and host-mediated pathway for tissue destruction implicated in the pathogenesis of over one hundred conditions.


The WaterpikTM water flosser provided significant periodontal health benefits, both clinically and biologically to people with diabetes.